Public Service Model

The GEA Object Model for Service Provision or Public Service Model is an in-depth analysis of the service provision process.
The Public Service Model is depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1: The GEA Public Service Model

The aim and the basic concepts of the model are presented below.


This model is of particular importance for eGovernment applications and implementations as it could serve as the conceptual basis for constructing a public administration service ontology. The model presented here is PA domain-specific and as such takes into account, captures and expresses the semantics of the particular domain. At the same time, it remains basically compatible to the core concepts of generic service ontologies like OWL-S and WSMO. Being a generic PA model, the service description presented here may cover many different (ideally all) application areas in public administration. This makes it highly reusable in different cases of public service provision.

Basic concepts

There are two categories of Governance Entities participating in service provision:

Public Administration Entities that acquire one of the following roles during the Public Service provision phase:
  • Service Provider that provides the service to the Societal Entities.
  • Evidence Provider that provides necessary Evidence to the Service Provider in order to execute the Public Service.
  • Consequence Receiver that should be informed after the execution of a Public Service.
  • Service Collaborator that takes part in the provision of the Public Service.
Political Entities that define Public Services, which are governed by Preconditions usually specified in Laws.

Societal Entities model citizens, business or NGOs.

Preconditions set the general framework in which the Public Service should be performed and the underlying business rules that should be fulfilled for its successful execution. Preconditions can be formally expressed as a set of clauses (or rules) and are validated by a Piece of Evidence serving a Purpose. As Evidence is pure information, it is stored in Evidence Placeholders (e.g. administrative documents).

The Outcomerefers to the different types of results a Public Service may have. The Public Service Model defines three types of Outcome:

  • Output, which is the documented decision of the Service Provider regarding the service requested by a Societal Entity. This is currently embedded and reaches the client in the form of an Evidence Placeholde.r
  • Effect which is the change in the state of the real world (e.g. transfer money to an account) that is caused by the execution of a service. In public administration, the service Effect is the actual permission, certificate, restriction or punishment the citizen is finally entitled to. In cases where public administration refuses the provision of a service, there is no Effect.
  • Consequence which is information regarding the executed Public Service that needs to be forwarded to interested parties, i.e. other public agencies (Consequence Receivers).

Public Services are provided at an Administrative Level, i.e. local, regional, national, pan-European.

Public Services are categorized in several Domains, i.e. transportation, social welfare. Each Domain is divided into several SubDomains, i.e. the Transportation domain has SubDomains Ground Transportation, Air Transportation etc.