Terms and Definitions

1. Service Input
It is the complete set of information that needs to be checked or used in some way in order for a service to be executed. The Public Service Model defines two types of input: Evidence Placeholders and Other Input.

1.1. Evidence Placeholder
It is the part of Input that contains Pieces of Evidence. In fact, an Evidence Placeholder usually “stores” many Evidences and a specific Piece of Evidence might be found in numerous different Evidence Placeholders.

Various types of Evidence Placeholders may exist. For example, there may be Physical (e.g. documents) and Electronic (e.g. databases, XML documents) ones.

1.2. Other Input
Information that is used by the service for other purposes than the validation of the Preconditions validation is not considered Evidence and is modeled here as Other Input (e.g. the applicant’s address to be used for communicating a document/decision after the service execution).

2. A Piece of Evidence
It is piece of information that the Service Provider should have access to in order to check the validity of the Logical Preconditions.

3. Purpose of Evidence
In each service, a Piece of Evidence has a Purpose. The Purpose Of Evidence expresses the underlying business logic that explains the reason for which the service provider wants to have access to the specific piece of information. For example, the purpose of the ID card number (Piece of Evidence) could serve for checking and validating the identity of the applicant.

4. Laws and Preconditions
The execution of public services is controlled by a set of Laws. The Laws provide the execution logic of the service, by setting the Preconditions for the service provision. There are two types of Preconditions: Procedural and Logical.

4.1. Logical Preconditions
They model the business rules that are related with the provision of a specific public service and can be expressed using logical expressions, i.e. age>18.

4.2. Logical Preconditions
They refer to provisions enforced on the workflow and more generally on the procedural logic of a Public Service, i.e. a paper has to be signed by the director during the service.

5. Public Administration Entities
They participate in the Public Service provision process and acquire the following Roles: Service Provider, Consequence Receiver, Evidence Provider and Service Collaborator.

5.1. Service Provider
It is the public agency that produces and provides the service to the Societal Entities. Sometimes, it makes sense to separate the Service Producer (the entity that produces the service at the back office) from the Service Distributor (the entity that delivers the output of the service to the client at the front office).

5.2. Consequence Receiver
It is a third party that should be informed about the result of the public service’s execution.

5.3. Evidence Provider
It is a public agency that provides necessary Pieces of Evidence to the Service Provider in order to execute the service.

5.4. Service Collaborator
It is a public agency that participates in the service provision process and contributes to some part(s) of the service workflow.

6. Societal Entity
It models the clients of the Public Service. A Societal Entity requests a public service to fulfill its needs. Societal Entities are divided into: Legal Entities and Physical Entities.

6.1. Legal Entity
It represents businesses, NGOs e.t.c.

6.2. Physical Entity
It represent citizens.

7. Service Outcome
It refers to all the different types of results that a public service may have. The PA Service Model defines three types of Outcome:
Output, Effect and Consequence.

7.1. Output
It models the acquisition of information related to the public service provision by the Societal Entities. This information is currently embedded in administrative documents (Evidence Placeholders), which officially present the decision of the Service Provider with respect to the service asked by the Societal Entity.

7. 2. Effect
The execution of a service may result in a change in the state of the world (e.g. transferring money to an account). In public administration, the service Effect is the actual permission, certificate, restriction or punishment the citizen is finally entitled with. In cases where administration refuses the provision of a service, there is no Effect.

7.3. Consequence
It is defined as the forwarding of information related to the result of the execution of a service to parties with an interest in the event. Clients usually are not directly interested in the service consequences. Consequences may be: Internal or External.

7.3.1. Internal Consequence
In this case the same agency providing the service has to inform its own organization and/or information system for the service execution.

7.3.2. External Consequence
In this case information related to the service execution must be communicated to the other agencies to ensure information consistency amongst agencies.

8. Public Service
It models a service that is provided by public administration to the Societal Entities. Public Services aim at fulfilling the needs of the Societal Entities and may be mandatory or not.

9. Public Service Domains and Subdomains
Public Services are categorized in several Public Service Domains (e.g. Health, Transportation). Each Public Service Domain comprises of several Subdomains (e.g. Domain Transportation has Subdomains Ground Transportation, Air Transportation and Water Transportation) [1].

10. Administrative Level
It represents the unique administration level at which each public service is offered.

11. Public Service Type
It represents the classification of a public service according to its outcome. In GEA the following five generic types of public services are identified:

  • Declaration: Through providing public services of declaration type, public administration declares and registers changes in the world state (e.g. marriage)
  • Certification: Through certifications public administration certifies existing states of the world (e.g. issuing birth certificate).
  • Control: PA uses a specific type of public service in order to address this: “Control”. As the offender tends to hide his/her behaviour from PA, the most ordinary type of control is inspections on a periodic or on an impromptu basis
  • Authorization: Through this type of public services public administration realizes both permissive and support goals.
  • Production: Public administration uses this type of public services in order to produce new public services.

12. Location
The Location represents the Physical or Electronic Location where the public service is offered.

[1] CIO Council: Federal Architecture Enterprise Framework v.1.1, 1999